The so-called TIER 1 providers, such as Cogent or Lumen, are the backbone providers of the internet. They transport the internet worldwide for operators and content providers, such as websites or Netflix. Essentially, a Tier 1 network is an Internet Protocol (IP) network that can only reach every other network on the internet through settlement-free interconnection (also known as settlement-free peering). Tier 1 networks can exchange traffic with other Tier 1 networks without paying for the exchange of traffic in both directions. Conversely, some Tier 2 networks and all Tier 3 networks, such as Telenet or Proximus, have to pay to send traffic to other networks.